Followers

28 February, 2011

How to Deal with Present Day Rulers and Systems? - (Part 3)

This blog post is a part of a series of articles : “How to Deal with Present Day Rulers and Systems”, which is an academic effort to understand the sayings of Allah’s Messenger on the topic. To view the index click here.
وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
CATEGORY 3 - TYRANT LEADERS OR LEADERS WHO DO NOT GIVE YOU YOUR HAQQ (RIGHT) OR RULERS WHO DO NOT COMMIT KUFR E BAWAH (EVIDENT KUFR)

HADITH # 4
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ عَنْ الْجَعْدِ عَنْ أَبِي رَجَائٍ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ کَرِهَ مِنْ أَمِيرِهِ شَيْئًا فَلْيَصْبِرْ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ خَرَجَ مِنْ السُّلْطَانِ شِبْرًا مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً
Narrated Ibn Abbas:  The Prophet said, "Whoever disapproves of something done by his ruler (امير) then he should be patient, for whoever disobeys the ruler even a little will die as those who died in the Pre-lslamic Period of Ignorance. (i.e. as rebellious Sinners).
Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari (Hadith # 6645)

HADITH # 5
 حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ عَنْ الْجَعْدِ أَبِي عُثْمَانَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو رَجَائٍ الْعُطَارِدِيُّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ رَأَی مِنْ أَمِيرِهِ شَيْئًا يَکْرَهُهُ فَلْيَصْبِرْ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ فَارَقَ الْجَمَاعَةَ شِبْرًا فَمَاتَ إِلَّا مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:  The Prophet said, "Whoever notices something which he dislikes done by his ruler, then he should be patient, for whoever becomes separate from the company of the Muslims even for a span and then dies, he will die as those who died in the Pre-lslamic period of Ignorance (as rebellious sinners).
Reference: Sahih Bukhari (Hadith # 1935)



HADITH # 6
 حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَی بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الْقَطَّانُ حَدَّثَنَا الْأَعْمَشُ حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ وَهْبٍ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ قَالَ قَالَ لَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّکُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ بَعْدِي أَثَرَةً وَأُمُورًا تُنْکِرُونَهَا قَالُوا فَمَا تَأْمُرُنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ أَدُّوا إِلَيْهِمْ حَقَّهُمْ وَسَلُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّکُمْ
Narrated Abdullah:  Allah's Apostle said to us, "You will see after me, selfishness (on the part of other people) and other matters that you will disapprove of." They asked, "What do you order us to do, O Allah's Apostle (under such circumstances)?" He said, "Pay their rights to them (to the rulers) and ask your right from Allah."
Reference: Sahih Bukhari (Hadith # 1933)
HADITH # 7
 حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ وَهْبٍ عَنْ عَمْرٍو عَنْ بُکَيْرٍ عَنْ بُسْرِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ جُنَادَةَ بْنِ أَبِي أُمَيَّةَ قَالَ دَخَلْنَا عَلَی عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ وَهُوَ مَرِيضٌ قُلْنَا أَصْلَحَکَ اللَّهُ حَدِّثْ بِحَدِيثٍ يَنْفَعُکَ اللَّهُ بِهِ سَمِعْتَهُ مِنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ دَعَانَا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَبَايَعْنَاهُ فَقَالَ فِيمَا أَخَذَ عَلَيْنَا أَنْ بَايَعَنَا عَلَی السَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ فِي مَنْشَطِنَا وَمَکْرَهِنَا وَعُسْرِنَا وَيُسْرِنَا وَأَثَرَةً عَلَيْنَا وَأَنْ لَا نُنَازِعَ الْأَمْرَ أَهْلَهُ إِلَّا أَنْ تَرَوْا کُفْرًا بَوَاحًا عِنْدَکُمْ مِنْ اللَّهِ فِيهِ بُرْهَانٌ
Narrated Junada bin Abi Umaiya:  We entered upon 'Ubada bin As-Samit while he was sick. We said, "May Allah make you healthy. Will you tell us a Hadith you heard from the Prophet and by which Allah may make you benefit?" He said, "The Prophet called us and we gave him the Pledge of allegiance for Islam, and among the conditions on which he took the Pledge from us, was that we were to listen and obey (the orders) both at the time when we were active and at the time when we were tired, and at our difficult time and at our ease and to be obedient to the ruler and give him his right even if he did not give us our right, and not to fight against him unless we noticed him having open Kufr (disbelief) for which we would have a proof with us from Allah."
Reference: Sahih Bukhari (Hadith # 1936)
HADITH # 8
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَرْعَرَةَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ عَنْ أُسَيْدِ بْنِ حُضَيْرٍ أَنَّ رَجُلًا أَتَی النَّبِيَّ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ اسْتَعْمَلْتَ فُلَانًا وَلَمْ تَسْتَعْمِلْنِي قَالَ إِنَّکُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ بَعْدِي أَثَرَةً فَاصْبِرُوا حَتَّی تَلْقَوْنِي
Narrated Usaid bin Hudair: A man came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! You appointed such-and-such person and you did not appoint me?" The Prophet said, "After me you will see rulers not giving you your right (but you should give them their right) and be patient till you meet me."
Reference: Sahih Bukhari (Hadith # 1937)
HADITH # 9
خطبنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال في خطبته إلا إني أوشك أن أدعى فأجيب فيليكم عمال من بعدي يعملون ما تعلمون ويعملون ما تعرفون وطاعة أولئك طاعة فتلبثون كذلك زمانا ثم يليكم عمال من بعدهم يعملون بما لا يعلمون ويعملون بما لا تعرفون فمن فادهم وناصحهم فأولئك قد هلكوا وأهلكوا وخالطوهم بأجسادكم وزايلوهم بأعمالكم واشهدوا على المحسن أنه محسن وعلى المسيء أنه مسيء
Prophet Muhammad gave us a Khutba (sermon) in which he said “After me you will see leaders who will do what you will know, and they will do what you will like, and obedience to them is obedience, so you will stay like that in that era, and after that you will have rulers, they will do what they will not know, and they will do what you will not like, so he whoever helped them and became their advisor those are the one who have perished themselves and destroyed others. Mix with them with your bodies, and stay away from them with regards to your actions. And testify for the good that it is good, and for the bad that it is bad”
Reference: M’ujam al-Awsat at-Tabari (Hadith # 6998), authenticated by al-Albani in As Saheeha (Hadith # 457).

HADITH # 10
عن أم سلمة أن رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم قال ستکون أمرا فتعرفون وتنکرون فمن عرف بر ومن أنکر سلم ولکن من رضي وتابع قالوا أفلا نقاتلهم قال لا ما صلوا
It has been narrated on the authority of Umm Salama that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: Soon there will be Ameers and you will like their good deeds and dislike their bad deeds. One who sees through their bad deeds (and tries to prevent their repetition by his hand or through his speech), is absolved from blame, but one who hates their bad deeds (in the heart of his heart, being unable to prevent their recurrence by his hand or his tongue, is (also) safe (so far as God's wrath is concerned). But one who approves of their bad deeds and imitates them (is ruined). People asked (the Holy Prophet): Shouldn't we fight against them? He replied: No, as long as they say their prayers.
Reference: Sahih al-Muslim (Hadith # 303, 304), similar narrations are there in Sunan abu Dawud, Jami’ Tirmidhi and Masnad Ahmed bin Hanbal. In a narration of Masnad Ahmed bin Hanbal (Hadith # 26571) it is “No! As long as they pray for you the five”
HADITH # 11
سيكون أمراء تعرفون و تنكرون فمن نابذهم نجا ومن اعتزلهم سلم ومن خالطهم هلك
Ibn ‘Abbas narrates from Allah’s Messenger that he said, “Soon there will be Ameers and you will like their good deeds and dislike their bad deeds. He who turned away from them is rescued, he who withdraws from them will be saved, and who mixes with them will perish.”
Reference: M’ujam al-Kabeer at-Tabari (Hadith # 10973). Masnaf ibn e Abi Shaiba (Hadith # 38898). Al-Albani has authenticated it.
HADITH # 12
عن عوف بن مالک عن رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم قال خيار أمتکم الذين تحبونهم ويحبونکم ويصلون عليکم وتصلون عليهم وشرار أمتکم الذين تبغضونهم ويبغضونکم وتلعنونهم ويلعنونکم قيل يا رسول الله أفلا ننابذهم بالسيف فقال لا ما أقاموا فيکم الصلاة وإذا رأيتم من ولاتکم شيا تکرهونه فاکرهوا عمله ولا تنزعوا يدا من طاعة
It has been narrated on the authority of 'Auf b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, who invoke God's blessings upon you and you invoke His blessings upon them. And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you and whom you curse and who curse you. It was asked (by those present): Shouldn't we overthrow them with the help of the sword? He said: No, as long as they establish prayer among you. If you then find anything detestable in them, you should hate their administration, but do not withdraw yourselves from their obedience.
Reference: Sahih al-Muslim
LESSONS IN THESE AHADITH:
Lesson # 1- Ahaadith mentioned in this section are for those rulers who rule by the law of Allah, and the mistakes committed by them are in some form of oppression OR rulers who have bad deeds that the followers dislike, but those bad deeds do not constitute open kufr.
Lesson # 2- If the leader is not giving you your rights then you should ask your rights from Allah, and not disconnect yourself from the Muslims and take your hand away from obedience of Khalifah, until he commits open kufr.
Lesson # 3- We should not rise up against the Khalifah (central leader of Muslims) or Ameer (regional leader) if we dislike something in him that doesn’t constitue open kufr, because our disliking and starting a campaign on it, might divide the Muslims. Rather it is better to have patience (sabr) and respect the unity of Muslims.
Lesson # 4 – If we have leaders whose certain acts and qualities we like, and certain acts and qualities we dislike we shouldn’t take away hands from their obedience, but we should also not mix in their bad acts, and when they commit open kufr, we should not obey them and should rise up against them.
Lesson # 5 – We have to recognize the evil acts of such rulers and stay away from them, and we should not mix with them in their acts, and the best approach is to turn away from them (نابذهم) as much as possible, but still not divide away from the community of Muslims. But once they commit open kufr we have to turn them away from us (ننابذهم).
Lesson # 6 – Few narrations mention ‘No, as long as they say their prayers’ instead of ‘open kufr’ because they are equivalent, because leaving prayer (salah) is one of the most open form of obvious kufr.
حدثنا عبد الله بن بريدة عن أبيه قال : - قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم العهد الذي بيننا وبينهم الصلاة . فمن تركها فقد كفر
‘Abdullah bin Buraida (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates from his father that Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said: “The covenant between us and between them is Salah (prayer), he who leaves it commits Kufr (disbelief)”
Furthermore, what is meant by establishing the prayer is to rule by Islam. This is because the whole of Islam is denoted here by naming part of it. This is common in Arabic, for instance Allah says: "To free a neck" [4:92] which means to free the slave i.e. all of him and not just his neck. In this Hadith Allah’s Messenger said: "As long as they establish the prayer among you." (ما أقاموا فيکم الصلاة) This means the establishment of all the rules not just the prayer and is a figurative form where basically the part is mentioned to refer to the whole.
Reference:  Sunan ibn e Majah (Hadith # 1079), Jami’ at-Tirmidhi (Hadith # 2621), Sunan An Nasai (Hadith # 463), Classified as Sahih by al-Albani. Saheeh ibn e Hibban (Hadith # 1456), Masnad Ahmed (Hadith # 23639), authenticated by Sh’uaib Arnaoot.
And Allah Knows Best.
APPLICATION OF THESE AHADITH IN THE PRESENT WORLD
Have the current day leaders committed كفر بواح (open kufr) for which we have a برهان (proof) from the book of Allah (Qur’an)? Few narrations also use the word كفر سراحا.
Imam Nawawi said in his sharah of Sahih al Muslim, “The meaning of kufr here is sin, meaning one should not object to the actions of the rulers unless they carry out clear and open transgression, and which is contrary to the general principles of Islam.”
“…Those who do not judge with what Allah has sent down are the unbelievers.” [Surah al-Ma’ida 5:44]
قال القاضي أبو يعلى الحنبلي"كل دار كانـت الغلبة فيها لأحكام الكفر دون أحكام الإسلام فهى دار الكفر " المعتمد في أصول الدين

Qadi Abu Ya’la (died 458 AH) said, “Any country where the law is Kufr (disbelief) instead of Islam is Dar al-Kufr.” [Al-Mu’atamad fil Usul ad-Deen pg. 276]
Remember the discussion here is not on امام جائر oppressive ruler. There are lengthy discussions amongst fuqaha as to when a revolt is permissible amongst an imam who is unjust or oppressive. The discussion at hand is how to deal with rulers who rule by other than the law of Allah and who have taken man-made laws as a substitute to the Shar’iah (the law of Allah). And from the above evidences it is clear, that the rulers who have imposed on us secular laws, riba based finances, and they commit open ‘sin’, regarding hundreds of Islamic rulings, commit open kufr.  
The discussion whether, these leaders still remain ‘Muslims’ or not, is something on which scholars have differed. We have been made to involve in lengthy discussions on takfeer (disbelief) of these leaders, but we are being made to ignore the fact, that we have to strive to over-turn them and the system they are running.
If running a whole nation with laws of kufr, and running a complete economic system with what Allah describes as waging a war against him, doesn’t classify to be open kufr, then what does?
Without going into any lengthy discussion, I would just like to quote few statements.
Shaykh Ibraaheem Ibn Muhammad Aal ash-Shaykh, who is held in high esteem in Najd, a scholar who died in 1968, the grand mufti of the land of haramain, wrote a book named تحكم بالقوانىن  (ruling by laws),  where he started by stating :
إنّ من الكفر الأكبر المستبين، تنزيل القانون اللعين، منزلة ما نزل به الروح الأمين، على قلب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، ليكون من المنذرين، بلسان عربي مبين، في الحكم به بين العالمين، والرّدِّ إليه عند تنازع المتنازعين، مناقضة ومعاندة لقول الله عزّ وجلّ: {فإنْ تنازعتُم في شيءٍ فرُدّوه إلى اللهِ والرسولِ إن كنتم تؤمنون بالله واليوم الآخر ذلك خيرٌ وأحسنُ تأويلاً{
 “Verily from the greater and clear kufr is giving to the accursed man-made laws the position of that with which the faithful spirit descended upon the heart of Muhammad, that he should be a warner in clear Arabic tongue, judging by it (Qur’an) between the nations, and referring back to it where there is disagreement, in contradiction to, an obstinate rejection of Allah, the Mighty and Exalted’s saying:
Believers obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Should you dispute about anything refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and the best interpretation. (Surah an-Nisa 4:59) “[Tehkeem bil Qawaneen pg.1]
الشيخ الشنقيطي: "وبهذه النصوص السماوية التي ذكرناها يظهر غاية الظهور أن الذين يتبعون القوانين التي شرعها الشيطان على ألسنة أوليائه مخالفة لما شرعه الله عز وجل على ألسنة رسله صلى الله عليهم وسلم أنه لا يشك في كفرهم وشركهم إلا من طمس الله على بصيرته وأعماه عن نور الوحي مثلهم".
Shaikh Shantiqi says, “And from these proofs from the book of Allah that I have mentioned, it is evident beyond doubt, that those who follow the laws which Shaitaan has made, by the tongue of his friends, opposing the laws of Allah, that came through the tongue of Prophet Muhammad, there is no doubt in their Kufr, and there is no doubt in their Shirk, except if Allah takes away Baseerah from someone, and makes him blind from the nur (light) of revelation”  [A’dwa’ al-Bayan 4/92]
Furthermore, Ibn e Kathir and Ibn e Taymiyyah declared the law of Yaasiq as Kufr, which appeared as a result of fitna of Tataar in their time, which was a mix of Islam and man-made laws. Ibn e Kathir says in Al-Bidaya Wan-Nihayah:
"فمن ترك الشرع المحكم والمنزل على محمد بن عبد الله خاتم الأنبياء وتحاكم إلى غيره من الشرائع المنسوخة كفر فكيف بمن تحاكم إلى الياسق وقدمها عليه؟! من فعل ذلك كفر بإجماع المسلمين"
“ So, who leaves the law of the law-maker (Allah) that was revealed on Prophet Muhammad, the last Prophet, and takes rulings from other abrogated laws committed Kufr (disbelief), then what about the one who takes rulings from al-Yaasiq and prefers it over it (the law of Allah)? He who does that committed Kufr (disbelief) by the consensus of Muslim.”

قال ابن القيم : "فإذا كان رفع أصواتهم فوق صوته سبباً لحبوط أعمالهم فكيف بتقديم آرائهم وعقولهم وأذواقهم وسياساتهم ومعارفهم على ما جاء به ورفعها عليه؟ أليس هذا أولى أن يكون محبطاً لأعمالهم"
Ibn al-Qayyim says, “If raising voice over his (Prophet Muhammad’s) voice can become a source of annulling deeds, then what about preferring opinions, intellects, priorities, policies, and understandings over what he has brought? Isn’t it more likely to annul deeds?” [A’ilam al Muwaq’ieen 1/51]
قال أحمد شاكر " إن الأمر في هذه القوانين الوضعية واضح وضوح الشمس هي كفر بواح لا خفاء فيه ولا مداورة ولا عذر لأحد ممن ينتسب للإسلام –كائنا من كان- في العمل بها أو الخضوع لها أو إقرارها فليحذر امرؤ لنفسه وكل امرئ حسيب نفسه(
Ahmed Shakir says, “The matter regarding these invented laws is clear, like the sun, that it is open kufr (كفر بواح), nothing is hidden in it, and there is no excuse for the one who belongs to Islam, i.e. either acting on it, or submitting to it, or agreeing to it, so everyone should save himself from it, and everyone is responsible for himself”.  [‘Umadat ut-Tafseer 4/174]
As a summary, it’s evident like the sun, that rulers of today have taken away leadership from Allah, and instead of becoming His Khalifah on earth, they are ruling us by accursed man made laws, they don’t return to the book of Allah for decisions, they return to the UN and US for ‘strategic’ planning, yet they consider themselves to be worthy of ‘listen and obey’ and yet they have found scholars who say they are yet to commit ‘open kufr’.



قال ابن بطال: إلا إذا وقع من السلطان الكفر الصريح فلا تجوز طاعته في ذلك، بل تجب مجاهدته لمن قدر عليها

Ibn Battal said: "When a sultan (ruler) shows clear kufr, then it is no longer obliged to obey him, on the contrary, it is wajib (obligatory) on those who have the means to rise up against him!" [Fath al-Baari, 13/7]
And Allah Knows Best.
Author: Mohammad Awais Tahir

The author may or may not have the same views on the topic and would not like to be quoted on what has been said above. The author, however, deems nothing wrong with changing opinions, hence, he does not wish to amend/remove posts that do not resonate with his current thinking. 
“Those who never retract their opinions love themselves more than they love truth.”

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