This blog post is a part of a series of articles : “How to Deal with Present Day Rulers and Systems”, which is an academic effort to understand the sayings of Allah’s Messenger on the topic. To view the index click here.
CATEGORY 1 - NARRATIONS ON FOLLOWING THE AMEER OR JAM’AAH OF MUSLIMEEN
HADITH # 1
حُذَيْفَةَ بْنَ الْيَمَانِ يَقُولُ كَانَ النَّاسُ يَسْأَلُونَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ الْخَيْرِ وَكُنْتُ أَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ الشَّرِّ مَخَافَةَ أَنْ يُدْرِكَنِي فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا كُنَّا فِي جَاهِلِيَّةٍ وَشَرٍّ فَجَاءَنَا اللَّهُ بِهَذَا الْخَيْرِ فَهَلْ بَعْدَ هَذَا الْخَيْرِ مِنْ شَرٍّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ وَهَلْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ الشَّرِّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَفِيهِ دَخَنٌ قُلْتُ وَمَا دَخَنُهُ قَالَ قَوْمٌ يَهْدُونَ بِغَيْرِ هَدْيِي تَعْرِفُ مِنْهُمْ وَتُنْكِرُ قُلْتُ فَهَلْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ الْخَيْرِ مِنْ شَرٍّ قَالَ نَعَمْ دُعَاةٌ إِلَى أَبْوَابِ جَهَنَّمَ مَنْ أَجَابَهُمْ إِلَيْهَا قَذَفُوهُ فِيهَا قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صِفْهُمْ لَنَا فَقَالَ هُمْ مِنْ جِلْدَتِنَا وَيَتَكَلَّمُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِنَا قُلْتُ فَمَا تَأْمُرُنِي إِنْ أَدْرَكَنِي ذَلِكَ قَالَ تَلْزَمُ جَمَاعَةَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَإِمَامَهُمْ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ جَمَاعَةٌ وَلَا إِمَامٌ قَالَ فَاعْتَزِلْ تِلْكَ الْفِرَقَ كُلَّهَا وَلَوْ أَنْ تَعَضَّ بِأَصْلِ شَجَرَةٍ حَتَّى يُدْرِكَكَ الْمَوْتُ وَأَنْتَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ
Narrated Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman: The people used to ask Allah's Apostle about good, but I used to ask him about evil for fear that it might overtake me. Once I said, "O Allah's Apostle! We were in ignorance and in evil and Allah has bestowed upon us the present good; will there by any evil after this good?" He said, "Yes." I asked, "Will there be good after that evil?" He said, "Yes, but it would contain Dakhan. I asked, "What will its Dakhan be?" He said, "There will be some people who will lead (people) according to principles other than my tradition. You will see their actions and disapprove them." I said, "Will there be any evil after that good?" He said, "Yes, there will be some people who will invite others to the doors of Hell, and whoever accepts their invitation to it will be thrown in it (by them)." I said, "O Allah's Apostle! Describe those people to us." He said, "They will belong to us and speak our language" I asked, "What do you order me to do if such a thing should take place in my life?" He said, "Adhere to the group of Muslims and their Chief." I asked, "If there is neither a group (of Muslims) nor a chief (what shall I do)?" He said, "Keep away from all those different sects, even if you had to bite (i.e. eat) the root of a tree, till you meet Allah, while you are still in that state."
Reference: Sahih Bukhari (Hadith # 3338)
HADITH # 2
وَحَدَّثَنِى مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَهْلِ بْنِ عَسْكَرٍ التَّمِيمِىُّ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ حَسَّانَ ح وَحَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الدَّارِمِىُّ أَخْبَرَنَا يَحْيَى - وَهُوَ ابْنُ حَسَّانَ - حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاوِيَةُ - يَعْنِى ابْنَ سَلاَّمٍ - حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ سَلاَّمٍ عَنْ أَبِى سَلاَّمٍ قَالَ قَالَ حُذَيْفَةُ بْنُ الْيَمَانِ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا كُنَّا بِشَرٍّ فَجَاءَ اللَّهُ بِخَيْرٍ فَنَحْنُ فِيهِ فَهَلْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ هَذَا الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ نَعَمْ. قُلْتُ هَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الشَّرِّ خَيْرٌ قَالَ « نَعَمْ ». قُلْتُ فَهَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ « نَعَمْ ». قُلْتُ كَيْفَ قَالَ « يَكُونُ بَعْدِى أَئِمَّةٌ لاَ يَهْتَدُونَ بِهُدَاىَ وَلاَ يَسْتَنُّونَ بِسُنَّتِى وَسَيَقُومُ فِيهِمْ رِجَالٌ قُلُوبُهُمْ قُلُوبُ الشَّيَاطِينِ فِى جُثْمَانِ إِنْسٍ ». قَالَ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَدْرَكْتُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ « تَسْمَعُ وَتُطِيعُ لِلأَمِيرِ وَإِنْ ضُرِبَ ظَهْرُكَ وَأُخِذَ مَالُكَ فَاسْمَعْ وَأَطِعْ ».
It has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters, on the authority of Hudhaifa bin al-Yaman who said: Messenger of Allah, no doubt, we had an evil time (i. e. the days of Jahiliyya or ignorance) and God brought us a good time (i. e. Islamic period) through which we are now living. Will there be a bad time after this good time? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yes. I said: Will there be a good time after this bad time? He said: Yes. I said: Will there be a bad time after good time? He said: Yes. I said: How? Whereupon he said: There will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and who will not adopt my ways. There will be among them, men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. I said: What should I do? Messenger of Allah! If I (happen) to live in that time? He replied: You will listen to the Amir and carry out his orders; even if your back is flogged and your wealth is snatched, you should listen and obey.
Reference: Sahih Muslim
EXPLANATION OF THIS HADITH
In summary the hadith is saying:
1- There will be leaders (ائمه), the plural of imam (امام) after Prophet Muhammad who will not adopt the ways of Prophet Muhammad and the guidance he brought (al-Qur’an).
2- Few of those leaders (ائمه) will have hearts like those of devils.
3- In those times, Prophet Muhammad advised us to follow the Ameer (امير), even if our wealth is snatched and our back is flogged.
Point # 1 – The hadith uses two different words, referring to two different types of leaders, and in the end Prophet Muhammad asked us to follow the Ameer, who would be on the right path, and not any one amongst the Aimah (ائمه).
Point # 2 - The fact that they don't mean same, is further strengthened by a hadith in M'ujam al Awsat and Mustadrak al-Haakim that uses the word امير الاعظم (Ameer ul 'Aazam, the greatest Ameer) in the end.
عن حذيفة قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ستكون أئمة لا يهتدون بهديي ولا يستنون بسنتي وسيكون رجال قلوبهم قلوب الشياطين في أجساد الإنس قلت كيف أصنع إن أدركني ذلك قال تسمع وتطيع للامير الأعظم وإن ضرب ظهرك وأخذ مالك فاسمع وأطع لم يرو هذا الحديث عن يحيى إلا عمر تفرد به بن سلام
Reference: M’ujam al Awsat (Hadith # 2893), Mustadrak al-Haakim (Hadith # 8533), Dhahabi classified it to be Sahih in his Talkhees.
Point # 3 - A hadith in which M'uaz bin Jabal asked Prophet Muhamamd the same question for the same types of leaders and he replied: there is no obedience, for the one who doesn't obey Allah.
قال عمرو بن زينب العنبري أن أنس بن مالك حدثه أن معاذا قال : يا رسول الله أرأيت إن كان علينا أمراء لا يستنون بسنتك ولا يأخذون بأمرك فما تأمر في أمرهم فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لا طاعة لمن لم يطع الله عز و جل
Reference: Masnad Abu Y’ala (Hadith # 4046), Masnad Ahmed (Hadith # 13248), Sh’uaib Arnaoot says that its chain can be called Hasan, al-Albani authenticated in Aj Jami’ As Sagheer, Haithmi says it contain ‘Amr bin Zunaib and I don’t know him, rest of the narrators are Saheeh. Ibn Hibban considered ‘Amr bin Zunaib to be trustworthy.
Point # 4 – The Answer of Prophet Muhammad, “You will listen to the Amir and carry out his orders; even if your back is flogged and your wealth is snatched, you should listen and obey” is similar to the other narrations where he said,” Adhere to the (main) group of Muslims and their Chief." Remember, these narrations are from the same Sahabi, Hudhaifa bin al-Yaman. (See Hadith # 1)
عن ابن عباس عن رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم قال من کره من أميره شيا فليصبر عليه فإنه ليس أحد من الناس خرج من السلطان شبرا فمات عليه إلا مات ميتة جاهلية
It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who dislikes a thing done by his Amir should be patient over it, for anyone from the people who withdraws (his obedience) from the government, even to the extent of a hand-span and died in that conditions, would die the death of one belonging to the days of jahilliyya.
Reference: Sahih al-Muslim (Hadith # 4784)
LESSONS IN THESE AHADITH:
Lesson # 1 – Prophet Muhammad prophesized that a time would come when “There will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and who will not adopt my ways” and according to the other hadith they“…will lead (people) according to principles other than my tradition. You will see their actions and disapprove of them."
Lesson # 2 – These are those who don’t rule by the guidance brought by Prophet Muhammad and don’t rule according to Qur’an and Sunnah.
Lesson # 3 – They are not to be followed, and Prophet Muhammad advised us to stick to the Jam’aat of Muslims and their Main Ameer (Khalifah). His very advice was to stick to the central body (Khilafah) of Muslims in case our regional ruler wasn’t acting according to the rules of Allah.
Lesson # 4 – When the Sahabi asked "If there is neither a group (of Muslims) nor a chief (what shall I do)?", Prophet Muhammad advised him to stay away from all divisions, hence, he acknowledged the coming of a time when there wouldn’t be any central body of Muslims, and Muslims will be scattered. For details see the part “disconnecting from all sects and systems” (Category 7).
APPLICATION OF THESE AHADITH IN THE PRESENT WORLD
We are surely in a time when we are ruled by laws other than the law of Allah, the leaders of Muslim nations have ignored the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad and his rightly guided khulafa but using these narrations to prove that we have to stick to our identity under nation-states and submit to the leaders of these nation-states is flawed because:
Reason # 1- The reason of sticking to the Jam’aah (main body of Muslims) was to protect the unity of the Muslims, as we will see in the ahaadith to follow as well. All these narrations can’t be used in today’s time because there is no central body of Muslims. Muslims are scattered under various nation states. Nationalistic battles have been fought between these Muslim nation-states, and many of them are in a state of cold war even today. Muslim leaders of these nation states have sought help from Kufaar against other Muslim nation-states. Muslim leaders and armies of these nation states have joined hands with Kufaar to help the Kufaar takeover the Muslim nation-states. Did Prophet Muhammad in any hadith ever, order us to protect nationalistic boundaries, or stick to nation states? Until Muslims unite under a central system, with regional rulers, and a central Khalifah, it is not befitting to take these ahadith out of context and apply them today. The following hadith very eloquently describes this:
عن عرفجة قال سمعت رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم يقول من أتاکم وأمرکم جميع علی رجل واحد يريد أن يشق عصاکم أو يفرق جماعتکم فاقتلوه
‘Arjafa (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say: When you are holding to one single man as your leader, you should kill who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity.
Reference: Sahih al-Muslim (Hadith # 4792)
عرفجة قال سمعت رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم يقول إنه ستکون هنات وهنات فمن أراد أن يفرق أمر هذه الأمة وهي جميع فاضربوه بالسيف کانا من کان
It has been narrated on the authority of 'Arfaja who said: I have heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Different evils will make their appearance in the near future. Anyone who tries to disrupt the affairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword, whoever he be.
Reference: Sahih al-Muslim (Hadith # 4790)
Furthermore, another hadith makes it very clear:
عبد الله البجلي قال قال رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم من قتل تحت راية عمية يدعو عصبية أو ينصر عصبية فقتلة جاهلية
It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn 'Abdullah al-Bajali that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who is killed under the banner of a man who is blind, who raises the slogan of ‘asabiyyah or supports ‘assabiyah, dies the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya.
Reference: Sahih al-Muslim (Hadith # 4786)
‘Asabiyyah in the current world should be translated as nationalism, as it was tribalism in those days. So this ‘asbiyyah which is a cause of divide amongst the Ummah, are we supposed to protect it?
And Allah Knows Best.
Reason # 2 – There is no narration which asks to ‘listen and obey’ rulers who rule us by other than the rule of Allah. Infact, there are clear-cut narrations who ask to disconnect from rulers ruling us by laws other than Allah, and there are vivid rulings to strive against them. The reality of today is that we are ruled by laws other than the laws of Allah. Our countries (nation-states) don’t even qualify to be labeled as Darussalam or Dar ul-Islam. How many Muslim countries (if not all) are led by secular democratic laws? How many Muslim countries (if not all) take rulings from UN and US, and not the book of Allah? How many Muslim countries (if not all) have joined ties with the enemies of Islam and Muslims? Is there any Muslim country whose economic state is based not on riba? And we still think we are living in Islamic countries (Dar ul-Islam).
وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
“…Those who do not judge with what Allah has sent down are the unbelievers.” [Surah al-Ma’ida 5:44]
قال القاضي أبو يعلى الحنبلي"كل دار كانـت الغلبة فيها لأحكام الكفر دون أحكام الإسلام فهى دار الكفر "
Qadi Abu Ya’la (died 458 AH) said, “Any country where the law is Kufr (disbelief) instead of Islam is Dar al-Kufr.” [al-Mu’atamad fil Usul ad-Deen pg. 276]
قال ابن القيم قال الجمهــور: دار الإسـلام هى التي نزلها المسلمــون وجــرت عليـها أحكــام الإسلام، وما لم تجر عليه أحكام الإسلام لم يكن دار إسلام
Ibn al-Qayyim (died 751 AH) said, “The Jumhour (majority) of the ‘Ulema say, ‘Dar al-Islam is where the Muslims go and reside and the Islamic rules are dominant. If however, Islam does not become dominant it is not (considered) Dar al-Islam” [Ibn Qayyim, Kitaab Ahkaam ahl al-Dhimmah, Vol. 1 pg. 366]
وقال ابن مفلح الحنبلي -رحمه الله-: " فكل دار غلب عليها أحكام المسلمين فدار الإسلام، وإن غلب عليها أحكام الكفار فدار الكفر، ولا دار لغيرهما "
It is reported that Ibn Muflih (died 884 AH) said, “Any Dar (domain) where Islamic law is dominant is Dar al-Islam, and any domain where Kufr law is dominant is Dar al-Kufr, there are only these two camps.” [Al-Adaab al-Shari’ah, Vol. 1 pg. 190]
And Allah Knows Best.
CATEGORY 2 - RULERS APPOINTED BY ALLAH’S MESSENGER
HADITH # 3
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَانُ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ الزُّهْرِيِّ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو سَلَمَةَ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّی اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ أَطَاعَنِي فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَقَدْ عَصَی اللَّهَ وَمَنْ أَطَاعَ أَمِيرِي فَقَدْ أَطَاعَنِي وَمَنْ عَصَی أَمِيرِي فَقَدْ عَصَانِي
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah, and whoever obeys the ruler I appoint, obeys me, and whoever disobeys him, disobeys me."
Reference: Sahih Bukhari (Hadith # 2007)
APPLICATION OF THESE AHADITH IN THE PRESENT WORLD
We don’t have leaders (ameer) who have the certificate of their leadership from Prophet Muhammad, rather we being led by leaders (ameer) who are hungry for power, fame and money.
And Allah Knows Best.
Author: Mohammad Awais Tahir
The author may or may not have the same views on the topic and would not like to be quoted on what has been said above. The author, however, deems nothing wrong with changing opinions, hence, he does not wish to amend/remove posts that do not resonate with his current thinking.
“Those who never retract their opinions love themselves more than they love truth.”
Please see : http://exploringpsyche.com/one-grand-retraction/
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