Followers

09 June, 2011

The Marriage of ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab to Umm e Kulthum bint ‘Ali bin abi-Talib (May Allah be Pleased with them all)

Numerous attempts have been made by extremist in the Sh’iaa ranks to forge events to ‘prove’ enmity of ‘Ali ibn abi-Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) for ‘Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) and ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him).The Marriage of ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) to Umm e Kulthum bint ‘Ali (May Allah be pleased with her), is an important event of history that many which gives a death-blow to their bogus stories. As opposed to the general acceptance of that marriage amongst Sh’iaa scholars in the past, most of them try to deny it today, out of their hatred for ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab. And no wonder when innovators like al-Khomeni get fame, who calls the greatest men in the history of Islam: Abu Bakr, ‘Umer and ‘Uthman as disbelievers [1].
The most authentic narration in Sunni sources for the marriage of ‘Umar bin al-Khattab with Umm e Kulthum bint ‘Ali is in Sahih al-Bukhari:
قال ثعلبة بن أبي مالک إن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قسم مروطا بين نسائ من نسائ المدينة فبقي مرط جيد فقال له بعض من عنده يا أمير المؤمنين أعط هذا ابنة رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم التي عندک يريدون أم کلثوم بنت علي فقال عمر أم سليط أحق وأم سليط من نسائ الأنصار ممن بايع رسول الله صلی الله عليه وسلم قال عمر فإنها کانت تزفر لنا القرب يوم أحد قال أبو عبد الله تزفر تخيط
Narrated Tha'laba bin Abi Malik: 'Umar bin Al-Khattab distributed some garments amongst the women of Medina. One good garment remained, and one of those present with him said, "O chief of the believers! Give this garment to your wife, the (grand) daughter of Allah's Apostle." They meant Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali. 'Umar said, Um Salit has more right (to have it)." Um Salit was amongst those Ansari women who had given the pledge of allegiance to Allah's Apostle.' 'Umar said, "She (i.e. Um Salit) used to carry the water skins for us on the day of Uhud." [2]
A narration has been narrated by An-Nasai and Darqutni that has been authenticated by the scholars of hadith, it says:
وَوَضَعَ جَنَازَةَ أُمِّ كُلْثُومٍ بِنْتِ عَلِىٍّ امْرَأَةِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ وَابْنٍ لَهَا يُقَالُ لَهُ زَيْدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ وَالإِمَامُ يَوْمَئِذٍ سَعِيدُ بْنُ الْعَاصِ وَفِى النَّاسِ يَوْمَئِذٍ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَأَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ وَأَبُو سَعِيدٍ وَأَبُو قَتَادَةَ
And the funeral of Umm e Kulthum bint Ali the wife of ‘Umer bin al-Khattab, and his son who was known as Za’id ibn ‘Umer, was brought, and the Imam on that day was Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas and people amongst the attendees that day were Ibn ‘Abaas, Abu huraira, Abu Sa’eed, Abu Qatadah. [3]
Other than the books of hadith, the event is also reported in the books of tareekh (history) and ar-rijaal (narrators). Some details of the events are:
Umm e Kulthum bint ‘Ali was born on 7th year after Hijrah [4]. ‘Umar bin al-Khattab married her in the times when he was a Khalifah and she was very young at that time [5]. The name of the son of Umer bin al-Khattab from Umm e-Kulthum bint ‘Ali was Zaid bin Umer bin al-Khattab who died at a young age [6]. Some sh’iaa scholars try to confuse him with the other son of ‘Umer bin al-Khattab named Ubaidullah bin ‘Umer bin al-Khattab who was born in times of Allah’s Messenger whose mother was Umm e Kulthum al-Khuzaee’ [7].Ubaidullah bin ‘Umer bin al-Khattab was also known as Zaid al-Asghar [8] and this is what has confused some sh’iaa scholars.  And, the Zaid born from Umm e-Kulthum bint ‘Ali, was also known as Zaid al-akbar. They were married in the month of Dhil-Qa’dah of 17th Hijri [9]. The Mahr given to her by ‘Umar bin al-Khattab was 40,000 dirham [10]. Zaid ibn Umer bin al-Khattab was born the year ‘Umer bin al-Khattab died, that is 23rd Hijri [11]. There are other narrations that Umm e Kulthum gave birth to a girl, as well, who was named Ruqayya bint ‘Umer bin al-Khattab [12].
And there are narrations that Zaid (al-Kabir) bin Umer bin al-Khattab used to say:
أنا ابن الخليفتين
“I am the son of two caliphs (‘Umar and ‘Ali)” [13]
He reached the times of M’uawiayh and died as a young man in 50th Hijri. And at that time Sa’eed bin al-‘Aas was the governor of Madinah [14]. Exact year of death has not been mentioned by many other historians but it must be before 59th Hijri as Sa’eed ibn al-‘Aas died in 59th Hijri, and it is certain that he participated in the funeral of Zaid ibn ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab [15]. He died in a young age and his lineage did not continue [16].  It is mentioned that Umm e-Kulthum bint ‘Ali and her son Zaid (al-Akbar) bin ‘Umer bin al-Khattab died on the same day, and it was not known which one of them died first [17]. And the funeral prayer of them both was led by Sa’eed ibn al-‘aas (who was the governor of Madinah at that time) and the attendees included Ibn e ‘Abbas, Abu Hurarira, Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri and Abu Qatadah (May allah be pleased with them all) [18]. Eighty Sahaba participated in there funeral prayers [19]. Some narrations mentioned that his brother ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar was the one who lead his funeral prayers and his mother’s [20]. And Umm e Kulthum bin ‘Ali married Sa’eed bin al-‘Aas after the death of ‘Umer bin al-Khattab [21]. Other narrations mention that she was married to Muhammad bin Ja’far bin Abu-Talib (her cousin) after the death of ‘Umer bin al-Khattab [22]. Other narrations say that she married the three brothers ‘Aun bin Ja’far, Muhammad bin Ja’far and ‘Abdullah bin J’afar one after the other, when the previous one died [23].
The evidences of Marriage of ‘Umer bin al-Khattab to Umm e Kulthum from Sh’iaa sources
[1] The famous Shi’a scholar Qaazi Nur ullah Shostri (death 1019 Hijri) writes:
Capture
“The Messenger gave his daughter to ‘Uthman and ‘Ali gave his daughter to ‘Umer “
Reference: Majalis ul-Mo’mineen (Pg. 89), published in Iran
[2] One of the most authentic book of Sh’ism al-Furu’ al-Kaafi written by Ya’qub al-Kulaini (death 329 Hijri) mentions a separate title in the book:
باب فى تزويج ام كلثوم
In this chapter he quotes two narrations (Hadith # 9536, 9537) from Ja’afar as Saadiq which prove the marriage of Umm e Kulthum to ‘Umar (RA) and both these narrations have been graded as ‘Hasan’ in مراة العقول by Baqir al-Majlisi. Though he (Baqir al-Majlisi) couldn’t resist from denying the marriage and expressing his hatred for ‘Umer bin al-Khattab and said:
هذان الخبران لا يدلان على وقوع تزويج أم كلثوم رضي الله عنها من الملعون المنافق
“These two reports do not prove the marriage of Umm e Kulthum (May Allah be pleased with her) with the accursed hypocrite” (نعوذ بالله)
[3] Another explicit reference from al-Kaafi of Y’aqub al-Kulaini (death 329 Hijri):
سليمان بن خالد قال: سألت أباعبدالله عليه السلام عن امرأة توفى زوجها أين تعتد، في بيت زوجها تعتد أو حيث شاء ت؟ قال: بلى حيث شاء ت، ثم قال: إن عليا عليه السلام لما مات عمر أتى ام كلثوم فأخذ بيدها فانطلق بها إلى بيته.
Suleman bin Khalid says: I asked Abu ‘Abdullah (J’afar as Saadiq) regarding women whose husband died, where does she complete her ‘iddah, in the home of her husband (late) or anywhere she wants? He (Ja’far as Saadiq) replied: “Wherever she wills. ‘When ‘Umar died ‘Ali came, held Umm e Kulthum by her hand and took her home”.
Same hadith is quoted from two different chains in al-Kaafi I.e. Hadith # 10902 & 10903, under the title:
باب المتوفى عنها زوجها المدخول بها اين تعتد وما يجب عليها
[4] Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Hasan at-Tusi (death 460 Hijri) in his book Al-Istibsaar agrees to it by quoting two narrations in ابواب العدة Volume. 3 pg. 185-186. He has also agreed to it in تهذيب الاحكام in كتاب الطلاق باب عدة النساء and also in كتاب الميراث.  The exact text from تهذيب الاحكام:
القداح عن جعفر عن أبيه عليه السلام قال : ماتت أم كلثوم بنت علي عليه السلام وابنها زيد بن عمر بن الخطاب في ساعة واحدة لا يدرى أيهما هلك قبل فلم يورث أحدهما من الآخر وصلى عليهما جميعا
Al Qaddah narrated from J’afar from his father that he said: “Umm e Kulthum bint ‘Ali and her son Zaid ibn ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab died at the same time, it’s not known which of them died first…”
The exact narration from al-Istibsaar (which is the same as the one of al-Kaafi, quoted above):
سليمان بن خالد قال : سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن امرأة توفي عنها زوجها أين تعتد في بيت زوجها أو حيث شاءت ؟ قال : حيث شاءت ، ثم قال : إن عليا عليه السلام لما مات عمر أتى أم كلثوم فأخذ بيدها فانطلق بها إلى بيته
Suleman bin Khalid says: I asked Abu ‘Abdullah (J’afar as Saadiq) regarding women whose husband died, where does she complete her ‘iddah, in the home of her husband (late) or anywhere she wants? He (Ja’far as Saadiq) replied: “Wherever she wills. ‘When ‘Umar died ‘Ali came, held Umm e Kulthum by her hand and took her home”.
 [4] Syed Murtaza ilm ul-Huda (death 406 Hijri) has agreed to it in كتاب الشانى and كتاب تنزيه الانبياء.
[5] The commentator on Nahj ul Balaghah Ibn Abi al Hadeed (death 456 hijri) has quoted an incident that proves it.
 [6] Syed ‘Ali Tabatbai (death 1231 Hijri) quotes the narration of death of Zaid bin ‘Umer bin al-Khattab in Riyadh al-Masa’il:
ماتت أم كلثوم بنت علي ( عليه السلام ) وابنها زيد بن عمر بن الخطاب في ساعة واحدة لا يدرى أيهما مات قبل فلم يورث أحدهما من الآخر وصلى عليهما جميعا.
This is the narration of al-Qaddah quoted above as well. And the same narration is found in many another books.
[7] Muhammad Taqi At-Tustari (death 1415 Hijri) says that the marriage of ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab to Umm e Kulthum bint ‘Ali is proved by Mutawatir narrations. He says in his famous book Qamoor ar-Rijaal:
لم ينكره محقق محققا ، فأخبارنا به متواترة في نكاحها وعدته
“A true Muhaqqiq (researcher) never denies it, because the reports of it are Mutawatir, on her Nikah (marriage) and her ‘Iddah (waiting period). “
And, there are many other references from the Sh’iaa sources as well. Yet, we find Sh’iaas trying to hide this event, which have been quoted in the most authentic Shi’aa and Sunni books. Some Sh’iaa scholars have gone to the extent of saying that that Ruqayya and Zaid were born from a Jinn’s Cohabitation with her (نعوذ بالله). All this is an attempt to kill this obvious historical fact, because it proves the love of ‘Ali bin abi-Talib for ‘Umer ibn al-Khattab. Why can’t they accept this historical fact and admit that they were as the Qur’an attests رحماء بينهم : merciful amongst themselves.
May Allah give us all the Fiqh of Religion!
And Allah Knows Best!

References:
[1] His book Kashf ul Asraar is filled of such filth, though it’s beyond the scope of this article.
[2] Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith # 2709, 3286
[3] This has been narrated by ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar,Sunan  Darqutni (Hadith #1874), Sunan an-Nasai (Hadith # 1978, authenticated by al-Albani. Similar narrations have been narrated by Ja’far bin Muhammad from his father that is present in Sunan Darqutni, Mustadrak al-Haakim, Sunan al-Kubra al-Baihaqi.
[4] Siyar a’alam an-Nubala adh-Dhahabi, 3/500
[5] Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah ibn-Katheer 5/330
[6] Tareekh ul-Islam li dhahabi 3/568
[7] Tareekh ul-Islam li dhahabi 4/58
[8] Tareekh ul-Madinah 2/654, Tareekh Madinah al-Damishq ibn e-‘asakir 19/484
[9] Tareekh ar-Rusul wal-Muluk at-Tabari (2/343) , Tareekh at-Tabarai (2/492), Ibn Hibban in ath-thiqaat (2/216), Al-Bidayah wan-nihayah ibn Katheer 7/93
[10] Tareekh Madinah Damishq ibn e- ‘Asakir, 8/116, Siyar A’alam an-Nubala 3/501
[11] Al-Eethaar Ibn Hajr al Asqalani 1/79
[12] Al-Kaamil fit-Tareekh ibn Atheer 2/212, al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah ibn Katheer 7/157, Tareekh at-Tabari 2/564
[13] Siyar A’alam an-Nubala 3/501
[14] Al-Waafi bil-Wafiaat 7/286 and 5/6, Seerah ahle-bait, Muhammad ratab an-nabalsi
[15] Asad ul Ghaba 1/451
[16] Tareekh al Islam Adh-Dhahabi 4/58
[17] Tareekh Madinah Damishq ibn e-‘Asakir , 2/309
[18] Tareekh Madinah Damishq ibn e-‘Asakir, 19/491, Tabqaat ibn Sa’d 8/464
[19] Tabqaat ibn Sa’d 8/464
[20] Tabqaat ibn Sa’d 8/464, Tareekh us-Sagheer al-Bukhari 1/102
[21] Tareekh ul-Islam dhahabi 4/227, 19/484
[22] Asad ul Ghaba ibn Atheer 1/981
[23] Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah ibn-Katheer 5/330

The author may or may not have the same views on the topic and would not like to be quoted on what has been said above. The author, however, deems nothing wrong with changing opinions, hence, he does not wish to amend/remove posts that do not resonate with his current thinking.
“Those who never retract their opinions love themselves more than they love truth.”
Please see : http://exploringpsyche.com/one-grand-retraction/
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18 comments:

anonymous1 said...

No offense, but your entire argument is somewhat bogus. Even if your claim is true (that the marriage actually took place) it doesn't mean much. Imam Hassan was married to a woman that poisoned and murdered him. It was a tribal society where marriage took place for a number of reasons.

I somewhat agree with you that Shias tend to exaggerate the disputes between Imam Ali, daughter of the Prophet and their sons, and the first 3 caliphs and one wife of the Prophet. However, differences obviously existed and they're well documented.

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

Who denies the 'differences'? But those differences were never a source of hatred, as it exists today, and it is given a sense of 'piety'. It makes a difference, that is why so many are bent on erasing the incident from the books of history. If 'Ali (RA) hated 'Umer (RA) as Mulla Baqir Majlisi, and Khomeni think, then such an even would give death-blow to their arguments. And don't forget many Sh'iaas, including Khomeni have gone to the extent of saying that 'Umer was a Kaafir, did 'Ali (RA) let her daughter marry a person who was so impious?

So, the differences are recorded, but the hatred has been forged, and that's only by the side, whose existence is justified with that !

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

And your comment is just another example of how people twist and give logics to prove that 'Ali (RA) did not love 'Umer (RA). There are hundreds of other proofs, from the books of both sides. As if you are saying, one of the best man that ever lived, didn't really care where her daughter got married. Even if he didn't care where he gets married himself, he would seek the best for his daughter, and only agree to a proposal when it comes from a person who is fitting, and is pious.

anonymous1 said...

There's no shortage of hatred on the side of modern Shias. Hz Ali had far more respect than us (eg how the wife of the Prophet was treated at end of Battle of Jamal etc. I don't know what other historians say, but the Shia tradition is that she was treated with respect and escorted by her brother). We have never heard Hz Ali or anyone else curse or abuse these companions.

My faith isn't based on what Khomeni and Baqir Majlisi (someone who I have heard of) say. If Khomeni called the Second Caliph a Kafir, that was wrong. Anyway, there are 1200-1400 years of history of a dysfunctional relationship (countless Ahl-Sunnah scholars have deemed all shias to be kafir). Unless we are determined to fix these problems for the sake of the Ummah we will continue to suffer.

Regarding: The differences are recorded, but the hatred has been forged.
I don't disagree with you much. It isn't easy to gauge the exact level of difference (I wouldn't want to put labels of love or hate). I'm not sure why we need to do that.

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

There are very few who issue a fatwa of blanket kufr of all sh'iaas, rather they say whoever has so and so belief, is kaafir because of so and so (proof from the sources).

When people like Khomeni are held in such a high-esteem, the Sunnis have no other option but to doubt what the actual beliefs of Sh'iaas are. So, from the Sh'iaa side what is required is an announcement of disconnection from the one who abuses Sahaba, or calls them Kaafir.

Now, here comes another problem. What if the Sh'iaa sources actually say what they say? And by sources I mean, the books of hadith. Even al-Kaafi has many narrations (graded as authentic), that I feel like throwing in the garbage bin as they are in clear cut contradiction with Qur'an. Have you read al-Kaafi?

anonymous1 said...

There needs to be more understanding from both sides. We disagree on events of history. No one can "prove" one version to be true (at least the other won't believe them). Shias should refrain from calling Sahaba kafirs. Allah will judge each one of them.

Shias do not have any "sahih" books. Each hadith is supposed to be judged individually. Very frankly, I have not read Al-Kafi much. I have spent much more time reading Bukhari and Muslim. I don't consider either one as completely sahih either. I can fully believe that there are many hadith in Shia books that contradict Quran (and hence are unauthentic). Maybe you should ask these questions from Shia scholars. I'm sure they will say the same thing (I've heard them say it): Each hadith has to be graded on its own.

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

There are many disputes that can be resolved with Qur'an as the guide. But, when quotations of Imams are preferred over the Qur'an and they are given the infallible status, then its not possible.

Next, I am well aware of the 'ilm ul hadith, and asmaa' ur rijaal, and I know in Sh'iaa sources there is no book which is referred to as Sahih as a whole, that is why I wrote in brackets 'graded as authentic', so I was referring to only those narrations of al-Kaafi that are classified as authentic by Sh'iaa scholars themselves. Another basic difference between Sh'ia and Sunni texts is that they even refer to the sayings of 'Imams' as the hadith, and include them in the compilation of hadith, and they take hadith from only few (rather very few) sahabi.

Wonderful said...

Narrated Tha'laba bin Abi Malik: 'Umar bin Al-Khattab distributed some garments amongst the women of Medina. One good garment remained, and one of those present with him said, "O chief of the believers! Give this garment to your wife, the (grand) daughter of Allah's Apostle." They meant Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali. 'Umar said, Um Salit has more right (to have it)." Um Salit was amongst those Ansari women who had given the pledge of allegiance to Allah's Apostle.' 'Umar said, "She (i.e. Um Salit) used to carry the water skins for us on the day of Uhud." [2]

[2] Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith # 2709, 3286

This is really a hadith ??? I wonder who disqualify the sayings of Holy Imams as ahadith would say to the above quotation when there is actually no saying of Holy Prophet (saww). I really wonder !

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

I wish you were aware of 'Uloom ul Hadith, a hadith which terminates at a Sahabi is known as a 'Mawquf Hadith', and there are ahadith in Sh'ia texts which terminate at the the Sahaba as well, and there is no dispute over that. The dispute is over the infallibility innovated for the Imaams.

As for the Sahaba, Qur'an gives the guarnatee for their عدالت (sincerity). It is illogical and not supported by Qur'an to raise the self-selected Imams over the students of Allah's Messenger.

anonymous1 said...

I have never heard of any Imam's quote being considered superior to Quran. Needless to say, that would be wrong.
As you know, the Imams are considered infallibles and their sayings are considered superior to other companions. There's no point of replying to your "self-selected" comment since that won't lead to anything productive.

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

If you had read al-Kaafi and other Sh'ia sources, you'd know that too.

anonymous1 said...

So you're trying to tell me Shias consider Imams to be superior than Quran? I should make a list of things that Shias do not believe in.

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

Of-course, they don't say that directly, but there are narrations in al-Kaafi (classed as authentic) describing the significance of 'Imaams', which certainly constitute Shirk. Read al-Kaafi yourself for a change to know what it contains. And how many narrations are in it from the companions, and how many are from the 'Imaams'. Do, you know al-Kafi contains a narration that all Sahaba apostated after the death of Allah's messenger except three?

anonymous1 said...

you seem to be more concerned about al-Kafi traditions that most Shias.

Anonymous said...

MashaALLAH, the good thing I found on this forum is no one is fighting! :)

anonymous1 said...

you seem to be more concerned about al-Kafi traditions that most Shias.

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

There are many disputes that can be resolved with Qur'an as the guide. But, when quotations of Imams are preferred over the Qur'an and they are given the infallible status, then its not possible.

Next, I am well aware of the 'ilm ul hadith, and asmaa' ur rijaal, and I know in Sh'iaa sources there is no book which is referred to as Sahih as a whole, that is why I wrote in brackets 'graded as authentic', so I was referring to only those narrations of al-Kaafi that are classified as authentic by Sh'iaa scholars themselves. Another basic difference between Sh'ia and Sunni texts is that they even refer to the sayings of 'Imams' as the hadith, and include them in the compilation of hadith, and they take hadith from only few (rather very few) sahabi.

Muhammad Awais Tahir said...

There are very few who issue a fatwa of blanket kufr of all sh'iaas, rather they say whoever has so and so belief, is kaafir because of so and so (proof from the sources).

When people like Khomeni are held in such a high-esteem, the Sunnis have no other option but to doubt what the actual beliefs of Sh'iaas are. So, from the Sh'iaa side what is required is an announcement of disconnection from the one who abuses Sahaba, or calls them Kaafir.

Now, here comes another problem. What if the Sh'iaa sources actually say what they say? And by sources I mean, the books of hadith. Even al-Kaafi has many narrations (graded as authentic), that I feel like throwing in the garbage bin as they are in clear cut contradiction with Qur'an. Have you read al-Kaafi?

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